Collection Description

Research Ethics Professional

Research Ethics Professional is a sub-collection on research ethics focusing on  professional ethics, on work ethics in the research profession, namely on the specific responsibilities common among researchers who do the research, including the whole environment and other stakeholders.
The main ethical normative aspects of research are presented in a systematic way as building blocks from a unifying principle, a limited set of virtues and a wide range of responsibilities as self-oriented or others-oriented duties. The collection as a systematic whole is highlighting a holistic approach on the ethics of duties in the research profession, from various points of views, constituting a comprehensive totality of all main aspects of this activity, based on The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, published recently by All European Academies (ALLEA). This collection borrows from ALLEA's expertise and results, it shows in short how to deal with failures to use good practice, which jeopardize by irresponsible behaviour the important harmony between the aim of increasing knowledge and remaining true to self-knowledge, proper to ethical life. 

Collection Overview

EF0    Reference works
EF1    Main ethical normative aspects of research
EF2    Research environment: stakeholders
EF3    Training, supervision and mentoring
EF4    Research procedures
EF5    Safeguards
EF6    Data practices and management
EF7    Collaborative working
EF8    Publication and dissemination
EF9    Reviewing, evaluating and editing
EF10  Geographical areas


Classification tree: Details

EF0    Reference works
           EF001    Bibliographies
           EF002    Case studies
           EF003    Codes of ethics in all disciplines as self-regulatory framework
           EF004    Educational resources
           EF005    Encyclopedias/Dictionaries
           EF006    Manuals/Handbooks
           EF007    Methodologies/Theories
           EF008    Theses/Dissertations

EF1    Main ethical normative aspects of research
           EF100    Unifying ethical and cognitive principle: self-knowledge and increase of knowledge
           EF101    Main four virtues for responsible research
                          EF1011    Virtue of reliability (others can depend on you on various levels)
                                            EF10111    Reliability on the level of the design, methodology, analysis and use of resources
                          EF1012     Virtue of honesty
                                             EF10121    As fair, full and unbiased way of undertaking or developing research
                                             and transparent reviewing, reporting or communication on research
                          EF1013      Virtue of respect and care (for colleagues, research participants the environment)
                          EF1014      Virtue of accountability
                                             EF10141    As developing the research from the idea to the publication
                                             EF10142    As management and organization of research
                                             EF10143    As training, supervision and mentoring
                                             EF10144    As caring for wider impacts of research: society and environment
           EF102     Self-directed ethics of duty and responsibility in research
                           EF1020    Research responsibility understood as integrity
                                            EF10201    As responsibility for trustworthiness of research
                                            EF10202    As societal considerations (to weigh societal benefits against risks)
                                            EF10203    As creating and sustaining work environments supporting integrity
                                            EF10204    As resource management (to use human, animal, financial and
                                                               other resources responsibly)
                                            EF10205   Management of technology vs. human integrity and dignity
                           EF1021   Duty ethics as awareness and adherence to regulations and policies
                           EF1022   Utility based duty ethics (not to use inappropriate research means or ends) 
           EF103     Others-directed or collaborative duties and responsibilities in managing collaboration and
                           for outcomes of research
                           EF1031      Sharing of responsibilities as integrity directed toward others
                           EF1032      Clarifying responsibility as based on trust, purpose and goal (in establishing
                                              and maintaining trust)
                                              EF10321    Purpose related trust aims at advancing knowledge to the benefit
                                                                 of humankind (agreement at the outset on the goals of the research)
                           EF1033     Responsibility as communicative praxis (or mutual understanding of the research)
                           EF1034     Responsibility as fair share of costs and benefits
                           EF1035     Collaborative relationships based responsibility (or resolution of conflicts,
                                              of disagreements and misunderstandings)
                           EF1036     Representation agreement (or authority to speak on behalf of the collaboration)
                           EF1037     Duty to make research findings public (after author claims are clear)
                           EF1038     Duty of keeping research records clear and accurate for verification and replication
                                             EF10381    To limit professional comments to recognized expertise
                                             EF10382    Authorship:  clarify, record and list correct authors (in any representations
                                                                of research or applications)
                                             EF10383    Wider acknowledgement (mention any other significant contributions
                                             to the research)
                                             EF10384    To provide a fair, prompt and rigorous peer-review
                                             EF10385    Respond for data, intellectual property and records related praxis
                           EF1039     Transparency (disclosure of possible conflicts of interest)
                           EF1040     Duty of responding to irresponsible research practices
                                             EF10401    Reporting to appropriate authorities (fabrication, falsification and plagiarism)
                                             EF10402    Responding to irresponsible research practices by appropriate procedures
                                             EF10403    Correcting research records
           EF105    Misconduct categories (typology of malicious ways of doing research)
                          EF1051       Serious research misconducts (which must be sanctioned)
                                              EF10511    Fabrication as making up results and recording them as if they were real
                                              EF10512    Falsification as manipulating research by unduly changing, omitting or
                                                                  suppressing data or results
                                              EF10513    Plagiarism as using other's work and ideas without giving credit, violating
                                                                  the rights to intellectual outputs
                          EF1052       Violations of good research practice and damaging integrity of the research process,
                                              without direct violations of rights (which should be sanctioned) as:
                                              EF10521    Manipulating authorship and denigrating the role of other researchers in
                                              EF10522    Self-plagiarism as re-publishing substantive parts of own earlier publications,
                                                                  or translations, without duly citing the original
                                              EF10523    Selective citing: as citing selectively to enhance own findings or to please
                                              EF10524     Withholding research results
                                              EF10525     Allowing sponsors to jeopardize independence in the research process so
                                                                   as to promulgate bias
                                              EF10526     Expanding unnecessarily the bibliography of a study
                                              EF10527     Accusing a researcher of misconduct in a malicious way
                                              EF10528     Misrepresenting research achievements
                                              EF10529     Exaggerating the importance and practical applicability of findings
                                              EF10530     Delaying or hampering the work of other researchers
                                              EF10531     Misusing seniority to encourage violations of research integrity
                                              EF10532     Ignoring putative violations of research integrity by others (or covering up
                                                                   inappropriate responses to misconduct or other violations by institutions)
                                              EF10533     Establishing or supporting journals that undermine the quality control of
                                                                   research as predatory journals
           EF106    Prevention of misconducts (as training, supervision and mentoring incl.
                           development of a positive and supportive research environment)
                          EF1061       Integrity based dealing with violations and allegations of misconduct
                                              EF10611    Investigations processes as fair processes
                                              EF10612    Declaration of conflict of interest during investigation by all parties involved
                                                                  in procedure
                                              EF10613    Confidentially and rights of whistle- blowers during investigations
                                              EF10614     Transparency and uniformity (assuring public procedures)
                                              EF10615     Principle of proportionate sanction to severity of the violation
                                              EF10616     Restorative action (after exoneration of allegation of misconduct, or after
                                                                   punishment privileged upon simple retribution)

EF2    Research environment
           EF201    Stakeholder level of the research
                          EF2011    Corporate research sponsoring
                          EF2012    National government use of results in decision-making
                          EF2013    Academic practice of research
                          EF2014    Learned societies, directories of peers, academic consortia and scholarly networks
                          EF2015    Citizen participation
                          EF2016    Familiy duties and careers options for researchers in higher education
                          EF2017    Faith, knowledge and freedom (faith based organisations service to research and
                                           the problem of the independence in carrying out research and in informing on results)  
                          EF2018    Politics, knowledge and freedom (political threats to academic independence)
           EF202    What is freedom (as ensuring research integrity at all levels by the research institution) 
           EF203    Policy level of providing clear procedures on good research practice (incl. proper handling
                          of violations as research institutions)
           EF204    Library and publication ethical level (proper infrastructure for the management and protection
                          of data and research materials in all forms)
           EF205    The human resources ethical level (rewarding open and reproducible practices in hiring and promotion
                          of researchers)
                          EF2051    Ethics in employment terms and conditions in tertiary education (as by ILO or other
                                            UN organizations)

EF3    Training, supervision and mentoring
           EF301    Aim: researchers need to receive rigorous training (in research design,
                          methodology and analysis)
           EF302    Means to develop appropriate and adequate training in ethics and research integrity at all levels

EF4     Research procedures
            EF401    Development: (state-of- the-art development of research ideas in designing, carrying it out, analyzing
                           and documenting it)
            EF402    Funding: (making proper and conscientious use of research funds)
            EF403    Publishing ethics (results delivered in an open, honest, transparent and accurate manner incl.
                           confidentiality of data or findings)
            EF404    Report: (to report in a way compatible with standards and so that results can be verified
                           and reproduced)

EF5     Safeguards
            EF501    To comply with codes and regulations of the discipline
            EF502    To care (to handle research subjects with respect and care incl. in accordance with legal provisions)
            EF503    Community (to have due regard for the health, safety and welfare of the community,
                           of collaborators and others connected with their research)
            EF504    Fair (to take account of differences in age, gender, culture, religion, ethnic origin and social class)
            EF505    No Harm principle (recognizing and managing potential harms and risks relating to research)
            EF506    Compliance officer in institutions in the direct environment of research production 

EF6    Data practices and management
           EF601   Stewardship of data (ensuring curation of all data with secure preservation
                         for a reasonable period)
           EF602    Data access management (to ensure access to data follows the FAIR Principles: Findable, Accessible,
                          Interoperable and Re-usable incl. to close data as necessary)
           EF603    Access transparency (about how to access or make use of their data and research materials)
           EF604    Clear legitimation (to acknowledge data as legitimate and citable products of research)
           EF605    Explict credits in the contract (contracts or agreements relating to research outputs include
                          equitable and fair provision for the management of their use, ownership, and/or their protection
                          under intellectual property rights)

EF7    Collaborative working
           EF701    Partner oriented and ethical (taking responsibility for the integrity of the research with all partners
                          in collaborations)
           EF702    Initiate and complete work as team (by agreeing at the outset on the goals of the research
                          and on the process for communicating their research transparently)
           EF703    Idem for expectations and standards concerning research integrity
           EF704    Collaborative information (to be informed and consulted about submissions for publication
                          of results)

EF8    Publication and dissemination
           EF801    Research writing aiming to assure responsibility for the content of a publication
           EF802    Meaning of research writing (to agree collectively on the sequence of authorship based
                          on contribution to the design, relevant data collection, or analysis of the results)
           EF803    Making work available in an open, transparent and accurate manner to general public
                          (and in traditional and social media)
           EF804    Acknowledgement of contributions of others (including collaborators, funders)
           EF805    Conflicts of interest disclosure (for the research or for the publication of its results)
           EF806    Corrections (corrections or retractation of the work needs a clear processes for which reasons
                          are stated, authors are given credit for issuing corrections)
           EF807    Negative result as positive outcome (to consider negative results to be as valid as positive findings
                          for publication)
           EF808    Uniformity (to adhere to the same criteria as those detailed for any sort of publication)

EF9    Reviewing, evaluating and editing
           EF900    Aim and means of scholarly communication is to take commitment to the research community
                          (incl. in refereeing, reviewing and evaluation)
           EF901    Fair review and evaluation of submissions for publication, funding, appointment, promotion
                          or reward (in a transparent and justifiable manner)
           EF902    Conflict of interest disclosure (to commit to withdraw from involvement in decisions when there
                          is a clear conflict of interest)
           EF903    To maintain confidentiality as reviewer unless prior approval for disclosure
           EF904    To respect the rights of authors and applicants as editor and reviewer, and seek permission to make
                          use of the ideas, data

EF10 Geographical areas
                          EF1001    Global level
                          EF1002    Continental level
                                           EF10021    Africa
                                           EF10022    Asia -Oceania
                                           EF10023    Europe
                                           EF10024    Latin America
                                            EF10025    North America

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